Coupled fluid models of smoothed particle hydrodynamics and finite difference method for simulating dynamic penguin huddles
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A coupled numeric model of finite difference method (FDM) and smoothed particle hydrodynamic (SPH) is utilized for the simulation of dynamic penguin huddles. In this coupled fluid model, the full Navier-Stokes equations are used to solve a wind field using a finite difference method and simultaneously model penguin huddling through a smoothed particle hydrodynamics method. The FDM method is a common Eulerian numerical approach based on application of a local Taylor expansion and is used to estimate wind flowing in two dimensions around complex and dynamic huddle shape on a rectangular computational grid. The SPH method is a mesh-free Lagrangian method driven by local interactions between neighboring fluid particles and their environment allowing particles to act as free ranging “penguins” unconstrained by a computational grid. These coupled fluid numerical models are recomputed simultaneously as the huddle evolves over time to update individual particle positions, redefine the fluid properties of the developing huddle (i.e., shape and density), and redefine the wind field flowing through and around the dynamic huddle. This study shows the ability of a coupled model to predict the dynamic properties of penguin huddles, to quantify biometrics of individual particle “penguins” and to attempt an explanation of communal penguin huddling behavior as observed in nature.