Exploring the role of peer feedback in teaching and learning:
Mishra, Supriya Deepak
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There has been increasing efforts in healthcare education to prepare students to be reflective practitioners. The Accreditation Council of Pharmacy Education (ACPE), recognizes that being able to reflect is a key element in preparing pharmacy professionals to meet the challenges of a dynamic healthcare environment. Although peer assessment and feedback has been used in clinical education to aid in student reflection; limited evidence-based research on peer feedback exists in pharmacy education. This dissertation explores the pedagogical benefits of peer feedback as an instructional strategy, to facilitate reflective thinking among pharmacy students. This dissertation consists of three journal-type manuscripts. The first manuscript (Chapter 2) describes a conceptual framework, presents the factors impacting effectiveness of peer feedback, and provides design guidelines for educators and instructional designers to design effective peer feedback activities. The second manuscript (Chapter3) uses an explanatory-sequential mixed-methods design to gauge pharmacy students’ perceptions of and attitude towards peer feedback in a pharmacotherapy course. The research on factors impacting effectiveness of peer feedback in Chapter 2 laid the foundation for the construction of the survey used in Chapter 3. The survey data, and data from semi-structured interviews revealed, perception of competency, the perceived value of peer feedback, interrelationship among peers, and a safe and trusting environment are important determinants of students’ willingness to participate in peer feedback. The third manuscript (Chapter 4) presents a study that explores the pedagogical benefits of peer feedback by designing, developing, and implementing a peer feedback activity to facilitate reflective practice among pharmacy students. The conceptual framework and research on peer feedback in Chapter 2 laid the groundwork for the design of the peer feedback activity in Chapter 4. This study used a mixed-methods approach to investigate whether there was a relationship between effectiveness of peer feedback and reflective thinking scores among students. No significant relationship was found between perceived effectiveness of peer feedback and reflective thinking scores among students. Although we had limited data, important lessons were learned on the design, development, and implementation of peer feedback activities. The dissertation concludes with limitations and future research directions in Chapter 5.