Exercise-induced inflammatory cytokine production with and without experimental ischemia
Shill, Daniel Desaussure
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Intermittent claudication is the most common symptom of peripheral arterial disease (PAD). Additionally, inflammation is critical to PAD pathogenesis. Acute exercise-induced increases in inflammatory cytokines are associated with beneficial vascular effects. We characterized local inflammation in to response to ischemic exercise. Unilateral isometric forearm contractions were performed for 30 minutes with and without experimental ischemia. Blood was drawn before, during, and after exercise. Oxygen saturation levels, measured by near-infrared spectroscopy, were reduced by 10% and 41% during non-ischemic and ischemic exercise, respectively. Non-ischemic exercise did not affect cytokine values. Ischemia enhanced basic fibroblast growth factor, interleukin (IL)-6, IL-10, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and vascular endothelial growth factor concentrations during exercise, but not IL-8. In conclusion, the present study demonstrates that ischemic, small muscle endurance exercise elicits local inflammatory cytokine production, compared to non-ischemic exercise. The effect of ischemic exercise with PAD-associated comorbidities may impact the inflammatory response during and after exercise.