Van De Velde, Jacqueline Elizabeth
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In 1897, W.E.B. Du Bois published an article in The Atlantic entitled “Strivings of the Negro People,” in which he introduced the concept of double consciousness: an struggle that Du Bois identified as inherent to the African American experience. In considering the imagery within Du Bois’s work, it could be argued that Du Bois was in truth arguing not for a double consciousness, but for a triple consciousness: of race, ethnicity, and nation. Drawing from the geographic locations and creative imagery used within Du Bois’s work, I assert my own “triple consciousness” – that of nation, race, and religion – and argue for its application beyond solely African American literature to literature which contains any immigrant experience. I will focus primarily on modern Muslim Women’s Literature, reading triple consciousness within the works of Leila Aboulela, Fadia Faqir, and Monica Ali.