Compensatory responses in non-exercise activity thermogenesis and reported energy intake in college-age females during a moderate-continuous or sprint-interval exercise training program
Hathaway, Elizabeth Dixon
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The influence of exercise intensity while participating in a structured exercise program on a) energy expenditure outside of structured exercise (non-exercise activity thermogenesis (NEAT)), b) reported energy intake (REI), and c) cardiometabolic biomarkers have not been previously examined. This study aimed to: 1) examine how exercise intensity (continuous moderate-intensity exercise versus high-intensity interval training) influences compensatory responses (changes in NEAT and REI) to an exercise training program in overweight/obese college-age females, 2) explore whether compensatory changes in NEAT and EI explain inter-individual differences in cardiometabolic responses to moderate- and high-intensity exercise training, and 3) examine the effect of psychological constructs and view of exercise as commitment versus progress on compensatory changes in NEAT and EI. Overweight/obese college females were randomly assigned to continuous moderate-intensity cycling (MOD-C) or vigorous sprint-interval cycling (VIG-SIC) for 6 weeks of exercise training. Participants in the VIG-SIC group performed 5-7 repeated bouts of 30-second sprints at maximal effort, followed by 4 minutes of active recovery. Females in the MOD-C group completed 20-30 minutes of moderate intensity with duration matched to maintain equal energy expenditure between groups. NEAT was measured with the Actiheart physical activity monitor, REI via the Automated Self-Administered 24-hour Recall (ASA24), and cardiometabolic biomarkers were determined using standard clinical procedures. Exercise views were recorded immediately following exercise training sessions via the wrist-worn PRO-Diary monitor. No between or within group differences in NEAT were apparent on exercise or non-exercise days. Similarly, no between or within group differences were found in REI changes. When groups were combined, participants maintained NEAT (p=0.99) and decreased REI (p=0.01) throughout the study. Significant associations were found between NEAT responses and CRP and GLUC changes and while these associations were small in magnitude for GLUC, a 100 kcal/day in NEAT was associated with a 0.42 mg/dL decrease in CRP. Exercise views were not shown to be associated with compensatory responses, but higher self-control scores were associated with increased REI during the exercise training intervention. Future exercise training interventions should educate participants beginning a structured exercise program about potential adverse compensatory responses.