Examining educational multi-correlates at a primary school in Rwanda and their effects on student academic achievement
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The purpose of this study was to examine, what has been termed for the purposes of this inquiry, “educational multi-correlates” and their impact on academic achievement within a post-genocide private primary school setting in Rwanda. Educational multi-correlates in this study are a series of interrelated variables that influence academic achievement to include child dimensions, home dimensions, and school dimensions. The research participants at the primary school is comprised of 334 students. The population was further codified by ethnicity (Batwa, N = 106, Rwandese, N = 228) and by gender (N = 167) for both male and female. The effects of ethnicity and gender were also examined. This quantitative study used a 44 item survey instrument to explain the impact of educational multi-correlates on student achievement. The survey was centered on three constructs: child dimensions, home dimensions, and school dimensions that influence student achievement. The survey was designed to answer the following research questions: (1) To what extent do specific child dimensions of chores, health, and hunger impact academic achievement within a Rwandan primary school context, (2) To what extent do specific home dimensions of socioeconomic status, parental education, and parental involvement impact academic achievement within a Rwandan primary school context, and (3) To what extent do specific school dimensions of school resources, grade repetition, and school climate impact academic achievement within a Rwandan primary school context? Descriptive statistics, correlations, and multiple regressions were used as quantitative methods to determine the strength of relationships between educational variables and student achievement. The quantitative methods used, provide a means to explore the relationships between the multi-correlates and academic achievement. The results showed that both gender and ethnicity helped explain differences between the educational multi-correlates and student test scores. Within the child dimension construct, gender and ethnicity differences significantly impacted chores, hunger, and health measured against student test scores. Within the home dimension construct, gender and ethnicity variations also significantly influenced parental involvement and socio-economic status when measured against student test scores. Furthermore, gender and ethnicity distinctions significantly impacted grade repetition and school resources when measured against student test scores within the school dimension.