The alleviation of vitamin A deficiency in Ghana
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Ghana is a less developed country in African with excellent growing potential. However, malnutrition is severe in this country due to specific dietary style and economic status. Food fortification programs with divergent standards have been established to fight deficiencies of specific nutrients since 1996 in Ghana. As a result, vegetable oil and wheat flour are selected as food vehicles for vitamin A, folic acid, niacin, iron and zinc. This study focuses on the intake of vitamin A from fortified foods or foods that could be fortified using a survey conducted in three major cities in Ghana, i.e. Accra, Tamale, and Takoradi. The study examines factors determining the potential intake by distinguishing among consumption frequencies i.e., daily, weekly, and monthly, of five staples through the application of the multivariate probit model. The results suggest that per capita income, geographic location, employment status, education, and market access are of importance in determining the consumption frequency. The results also reveal that the existing food source of vitamin A from the program is insufficient for Ghanaian women to reach WHO daily standard. However, fortifying maize flour will largely alleviate the inadequate vitamin A intake issue.