Expression of adiponectin, chemerin and visfatin in plasma and different tissues during a laying season in turkeys
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Abstract Background In mammals, adipose tissue is able to secrete various hormones called adipokines including adiponectin (ADP), chemerin (Chem) and visfatin (Visf) which are involved in controlling energy metabolism as well as reproductive functions. Visf receptor is still unknown whereas ADP and Chem mainly act through AdipoR1, AdipoR2 and CMKLR1 and GPR1 receptors, respectively. No studies have yet demonstrated the presence of these three adipokines in peripheral tissues, ovarian cells or turkey plasma. Here, we investigated the expression (mRNA and protein) of ADP, Chem, Visf and their receptors in peripheral tissues and ovarian cells (granulosa and theca cells) from hierarchical follicles. Furthermore, we determined the plasma profile of ADP, Visf and Chem at different physiological stages: start, peak and end of the laying period in Meleagris gallopavo turkeys. This data was correlated with the metabolic data (plasma glucose, triglycerides, cholesterol and phospholipids). Methods Tissue and ovarian cells mRNA and protein expression levels were determined by RT-qPCR and immunoblot, respectively. Plasma adipokines were measured by chicken ELISA and immunoblotting. Results In turkeys, Chem is mainly expressed in the liver while ADP and Visf are mainly expressed in the abdominal adipose tissue and pectoral muscles,respectively. As in mammals, AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 expression levels (mRNA and protein) are highly present in muscle and liver, respectively, whereas the mRNA expression of CMKLR1 and GPR1 is ubiquitous. In ovarian cells, ADP, Visf, Chem and their receptors are more highly expressed in theca cells than in granulosa cells excepted for AdipoR1. Furthermore, we found that plasma levels of ADP, Chem and Visf were reduced at the end of the laying period compared to the start of this period. At the plasma levels, the levels of these adipokines are strongly negatively correlated with glucose and only plasma Chem is negatively correlated with cholesterol, triglycerides and phospholipids. Conclusions In turkeys, ADP, Visf and Chem and their receptors are expressed in peripheral tissues and ovarian cells. Plasma concentration of ADP, Visf and Chem decrease at the end of laying period and only plasma Chem is negatively correlated with levels of cholesterol, triglycerides and phospholipids levels during the entire laying period.