Relationship of psychological and oral health statuses with self-perceived halitosis in a Jordanian population: a cross-sectional study
Alzoubi, Firas Q
Karasneh, Jumana A
Daamseh, Nidal M
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Abstract Background Self-perceived halitosis could be a symptom of a psychosomatic or psychogenic disorder. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to clarify the relationship of self-perceived halitosis with psychological and oral health statuses. Methods One hundred participants with a history of halitosis were enrolled from a teaching hospital. They were divided into the self-perceived and suggested groups if they sensed and did not sense the malodor, respectively. Demographic and socioeconomic information, smoking status, and oral hygiene practices were noted. Complete nasal, oral, and periodontal examinations with organoleptic tests (OLTs) and N-benzoyl-DL-arginine-2-naphthylamide (BANA) tests were conducted. The participants also completed the validated Arabic version of the 90-item revised symptom checklist (SCL-90R). Data were compared by analysis of variance, chi-square test, Student’s t-test, and multivariate logistic regression. Results The self-perceived group had higher OLT scores (p = 0.005) and were significantly younger (p = 0.001) than the suggested group. A significantly higher number of its participants were smokers (p = 0.004). No significant differences were observed in socioeconomic information, oral hygiene practices, oral conditions, and BANA test results. Further, no significant association was noted between self-perceived halitosis and the nine psychological dimensions of SCL-90R. Conclusions Halitosis is a multifactorial symptom that requires multidisciplinary management. Self-reporting of the condition is unique entity and trust worthy symptom. It tends to be related to nonoral pathologies and extrinsic causes such as smoking.