Medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD) deficiency is the most common disorder of mitochondrial fatty acid β-oxidation and a target disease of newborn screening in many countries.
We report on two siblings with mild MCAD deficiency associated with a novel splice site mutation in the ACADM gene. The younger sibling was detected by newborn screening, while the older sister was missed, but diagnosed later on by genetic family testing. Both children were found to be compound heterozygous for the common c.985A > G (p.K329E) mutation and a novel splice site mutation, c.600-18G > A, in the ACADM gene. To determine the biological consequence of the c.600-18G > A mutation putative missplicing was investigated at RNA level in granulocytes and monocytes of one of the patients. The splice site mutation was shown to lead to partial missplicing of the ACADM pre-mRNA. Of three detected transcripts two result in truncated, non-functional MCAD proteins as reflected by the reduced octanoyl-CoA oxidation rate in both patients. In one patient a decrease of the octanoyl-CoA oxidation rate was found during a febrile infection indicating that missplicing may be temperature-sensitive.
Our data indicate that the c.600-18G > A variant activates a cryptic splice site, which competes with the natural splice site. Due to only partial missplicing sufficient functional MCAD protein remains to result in mild MCADD that may be missed by newborn screening.||