Prevalence of depression among subjects with and without gestational diabetes mellitus in Bangladesh: a hospital based study
Khan, A. K A
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Abstract Background Data on association between depression and diabetes during the pregnancy period in Asia, specifically in Bangladesh are scarce. The study was designed to measure the prevalence of depression during pregnancy with or without Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM). Methods Seven hundred and forty eight pregnant women (382 with GDM, 366 without-GDM) attending at the Bangladesh Institute of Research and Rehabilitation in Diabetes, Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders, participated in the study. Blood glucose was measured following both WHO and ACOG criteria; GDM was diagnosed within 24–28 weeks. Depressive symptoms were assessed following MADRS scale. Semi-structured questionnaire was used to record their socio-demographic status and clinical and family history. Blood pressure, height, weight were also measured. Results Overall prevalence of depression was 18.32 %. Depression was higher in GDM subjects (25.92 %) compared to without-GDM subjects (10.38 %) with mean age of of 28.34 and 27.17 years respectively. Prevalence of depression was alarming in both the extreme of age. Dwelling place (P < 0.009) and past history of GDM (P < 0.018) had strong association with Depression. Higher prevalence of depression was found in Primipara whereas the risk of GDM increased with parity. Other obstetrical factors did not show any significant association with depression and GDM. Income (self and total family), physical exercise, sedentary lifestyle and workload had no significant statistical association with depression or GDM. Conclusion Higher rate of depression in pregnancy deserves medical attention especially women diagnosed with GDM. Further studies should estimate adverse pregnancy outcome for untreated depression especially in GDM cases.