Information about HBV sero-markers, infection stages and genotypes in HIV-1 infected and uninfected injection and non-injection drug users (IDUs) in Kenya remains elusive.
A cross-sectional study examining HBV sero-marker, infection stages and genotypes was conducted among HIV-1 infected and uninfected, respectively, IDUs (n = 157 and n = 214) and non-IDUs (n = 139 and n = 48), and HIV-1 uninfected non-drug using controls (n = 194) from coastal, Kenya. HBV sero-marker and infection stages were based on HBV 5-panel rapid test plasma sero-reactivity. DNA was extracted from acute and chronic plasma samples and genotypes established by nested-PCR and direct sequencing.
HBsAg positivity was higher in HIV-1 infected IDUs (9.6 %) relative to HIV-1 uninfected IDUs (2.3 %), HIV-1 infected non-IDUs (3.6 %), HIV-1 uninfected non-IDUs (0.0 %) and non-drug users (2.6 %; P = 0.002). Contrastingly, HBsAb positivity was higher in HIV-1 uninfected IDUs (14.6 %) and non-IDUs (16.8) in comparison to HIV-1 infected IDUs (8.3 %), and non-IDUs (8.6 %), and non-drug users (8.2 %; P = 0.023). HBcAb positivity was higher in HIV-1 infected IDUs (10.2 %) compared to HIV-1 uninfected IDUs (3.3 %), HIV-1 infected non-IDUs (6.5 %), HIV-1 uninfected non-IDUs (2.1 %) and non-drug users (4.6 %; P = 0.038). Acute (5.7 %, 1.4 %, 0.0 %, 0.0 % and 1.5 %) and chronic (5.1 %, 0.9 %, 3.6 %, 0.0 % and 1.5 %) stages were higher in HIV-1 infected IDUs, compared to HIV-1 uninfected IDUs, HIV-1 infected and uninfected non-IDUs and non-drug users, respectively. However, vaccine type response stage was higher in HIV-1 uninfected IDUs (15.4 %) relative to HIV-1 infected IDUs (6.4 %), and HIV-1 infected (6.5 %), and uninfected (10.4 %) non-IDUs, and non-drug users (5.7 %; P = 0.003). Higher resolved infection rates were also recorded in HIV-1 uninfected IDUs (11.2 %) compared to HIV-1 infected IDUs (8.3 %), and HIV-1 infected (7.2 %), uninfected (6.3 %) non-IDUs, and non-drug users (6.7 %; P = 0.479), respectively. Only A1 genotype showing minimal diversity was detected among the study participants.
HBV sero-markers and infection staging are valuable in diagnosis and genotyping of HBV infections. Among IDUs, higher HBsAg and HBcAb positivity in HIV-1 infected and higher HBsAb positivity in HIV-1 negative IDUs suggests frequent exposure. Additionally, HBV genotype A is the dominant circulating genotype in both high and low risk populations of Kenya.||