Effects of sprint interval training and a higher-protein diet on postprandial lipemia, perceived health, and mood in women at-risk for the metabolic syndrome
Freese, Eric Christopher
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The goal of this study was to determine the effectiveness of 6 weeks of sprint interval training (SIT) and a higher-protein diet (PRO) on postprandial lipemia (PPL), perceived health, and mood in women at-risk for developing the metabolic syndrome (MetS). Physically inactive women at-risk for MetS (n=47; 30-65 years old) were block randomized to one of four groups: SIT (n=11; 3 bouts per week of 4-8, 30-second all-out cycle sprints with 4-minutes recovery), PRO (n=12, ~30% protein, 30% fat, 40% carbohydrate), SIT combined with PRO (PRO+SIT; n=13), or no dietary or exercise intervention (CON; n=11). Postprandial responses to a high-fat meal (HFMC) were assessed for 3-hours at baseline (B-HFMC) and after the 6-week intervention (Post-HFMC). Participants in SIT groups completed a HFMC the morning after an acute session of SIT prior to the intervention (Pre-HFMC), and after the 6-week interventions. Additionally, 3-hour postprandial assessments following consumption of a high-protein meal (HPM; PRO groups only), and a high-carbohydrate meal (HCM; CARB groups only) were made before and after the intervention. Perceptions of perceived health status and mood were assessed before and after the intervention. Compared to baseline, an acute bout of SIT before (Pre-HFMC) and after the 6-week intervention (Post-HFMC) significantly attenuated fasted (P<0.05; 16.6% and 12.3%, respectively) and postprandial area under the curve (13.1% and 9.7%, respectively) TG responses. SIT tended to attenuate the incremental rise in TG (P=0.054) following the HPM in PRO+SIT (19.3%) and the HCM in CARB+SIT (28.9%), but there was no effect of PRO or CARB (P>0.05). A significant Group X Time interaction (P<0.05) indicated role-physical scores were increased in SIT (Cohen’s d=0.45) while decreased in CON (Cohen’s d=-0.05). Clinically meaningful improvements in vitality were found following SIT (Cohen’s d=0.46). In conclusion, 6 weeks of SIT or PRO did not increase the attenuation of PPL compared to a single session of SIT. For middle-aged women at-risk of MetS, it is concluded that high-intensity low-volume SIT increases feelings of vitality and perceptions of having few physical limitations. SIT is an effective training modality to reduce PPL and improve perceived health in women at-risk for MetS.