Effects of silver nanoparticles and hydroxylated fullerenes on early life stage of the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas)
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Silver nanoparticles and carbon-based nanoparticles are two main categories of engineered nanoparticles and are massively produced and used in industrial and consumer products. Silver nanoparticles and hydroxylated fullerenes could both cause toxicity in aquatic organisms, however, the mechanisms of their toxicity remain unclear. We examined the effects of silver nanoparticles and hydroxylated fullerenes on fathead minnow embryos (Pimephales promelas). Silver nanoparticles caused both mortality and sublethal effects in exposed embryos. Hydroxylated fullerenes caused neither mortality nor meaningful metabolomic responses. Proposed modes of action of silver nanoparticle exposure included disturbance in osmoregulation and energy metabolism, induction of reductive glutamine metabolism and phospholipids biosynthesis. Our study demonstrated that NMR-based metabolomics can be an ideal approach for determining the toxic mechanisms of nanomaterials.