Teacher and school factors influencing collective teacher efficacy in elementary schools
Robertson, Brent Jeffrey
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Collective teacher efficacy has shown promise as a predictor of student achievement. Although individual self-efficacy and teacher efficacy research is prevalent, less is known about how the collective self efficacy reflecting a group of individuals interacts with student achievement. This descriptive study used survey design to gather data and multiple correlation analysis for data analysis, as well as, multiple regression to relate collective teacher efficacy to student achievement. Two groups of factors related to collective teacher efficacy included: school-related (age, size, SES and school wide achievement on Criterion Referenced Competency Tests in mathematics and reading), and teacher factors (teaching experience total, teaching experience at present location, professional experience outside of education, path to teacher certification, and highest level of education attained). Social cognitive theory was the theoretical framework for this study. This framework explains how individuals acquire and maintain specific behavior patterns. While the theory is well represented in the literature for individuals, much less has been hypothesized with social cognitive theory for a group as the unit of analysis. Findings showed that collective teacher efficacy could not predict student achievement, above and beyond the strong influence of school socioeconomic status. School related environmental factors described collective teacher efficacy stronger than individual teacher factors for this study. Collective teacher efficacy was best described by school socioeconomic status, school enrollment and teacher experience at present location. Recommendations for future study included: sampling at different times of the school year, identifying schools from this study with extreme scores in collective teacher efficacy for future research employing qualitative research methods, further analysis of this data set at the item level to further define this construct, and examining the relationship between collective teacher efficacy and job satisfaction.