Effects of aerobic and resistance exercise on postprandial lipemia
Stewart, Darby Jayne
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Previous studies have suggested that acute aerobic exercise performed ~15 hours prior to ingesting a high-fat meal lowers postprandial lipemia. The aims of this study were 1) to use meta-analytic procedures to quantify the effect size in studies that have investigated postprandial lipemia after a bout of aerobic exercise, and 2) to compare the effect of resistance exercise with aerobic exercise of the same energy expenditure on postprandial lipemia. To satisfy the first aim, 38 effect sizes were obtained from 29 published studies, including 555 people. The mean weighted effect was moderate as indicated by Cohen’s d (d=-0.57; 95% CI, -0.71 to -0.43), indicating that people who perform exercise prior to meal ingestion exhibit a 0.5 standard deviation reduction in postprandial lipemia relative to persons in comparison groups. There was no significant effect of study design, gender, age, type of meal ingested, exercise intensity, exercise duration, or timing of exercise on the postprandial response. There was a significant relationship between effect size and energy expenditure of exercise (r=-0.62, p=0.02). To satisfy the second aim, 14 resistance-trained men and women participated in three treatments: 1) a resistance exercise bout (RE), 2) an aerobic exercise bout (AE), and 3) a control trial (CON). The energy expenditures of RE and AE were the same. Sixteen hours following each treatment, subjects ingested a high-fat meal and blood was drawn at baseline and 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 hours after meal ingestion. Baseline TG and the total postprandial TG response were significantly lower and baseline fat oxidation significantly higher after RE than CON and AE. In conclusion, a meta-analysis of the literature indicates that exercise has a moderate effect on postprandial lipemia and that the energy expenditure of the prior exercise may play a role in the magnitude of this effect. Further, resistance exercise lowers baseline and postprandial TG, and increases resting fat oxidation, 16 hours after exercise.