The relationship between blood velocity and conduit artery vasoreactivity : role of nitric oxide?
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This study had three major purposes: 1) investigate the blood velocity-vasoactivity relationship; 2) determine whether indirect local heating can be used in conjunction with flow mediate dilation (FMD); 3) determine the effects of cigarette smoking on the blood velocity-vasoreactivity relationship. Blood velocity through the brachial artery was manipulated through the use of: 1) ischemia; 2) handgrip exercise; and 3) indirect local heating. Additionally, at the highest level of indirect local heating (42°C) FMD was repeated (%42°C FMD). A strong and reproducible relationship was observed between time average maximum blood velocity (Tamax) and brachial diameter independent of the method used to increase blood velocity (R2=0.92, P >0.05). A novel finding was a greater effect size for 42°C %FMD compared to room temperature %FMD (%FMD) (11.9+5.1 %FMD vs 18.4+10.4 42°C %FMD; P.<0.05). However, whilst smoking one cigarette impaired %FMD, %42°C FMD was not attenuated, and there was no effect seen on the Tamax-diameter relationship.