Teachers' intention to use the Internet : an application of the theory of planned behavior using structural equation modeling
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This study focused mainly on examining factors of teachers’ intention to use the Internet for class as one way of practicing constructivist teaching. The theory of planned behavior (TPB) was tested, discussed, and used to identify specific factors that influence teachers’ intention. Multiple regression and structural equation modeling with LISREL were used to analyze data at the .05 alpha of the significant level. The population for the study was secondary teachers in career and technical education in Georgia. According to the 2001 roster list, the population contained 3,788 secondary teachers. Through a stratified systematic sampling method based on content specialty area, instruments were mailed to 830 participants or 22% of the original population. A total of 343 valid responses were returned providing a response rate of 41%. The factors examined were (a) intention, (b) attitude, (c) subjective norm, and (d) perceived behavioral control from the TPB, and (e) perceived teaching value, and (f) habitual excuse as external factors of the TPB. Additional information about Internet use (teaching experience using the Internet for class; definition of the Internet; Internet use and its purpose) as well as background (age, gender, educational level, years of teaching, and teaching area) were also examined. Participants were also asked to provide feedback about their Internet experience and perspectives through an open-ended question. Effect size of R2 was 54% in LISREL analysis. Attitude was the strongest predictor for forming teachers’ intention to use the Internet in class, followed by subjective norm and perceived behavioral control. Teachers introduced specific information about how they have explored the Internet for class research. However, most teachers did not agree with using-email or homework assignments that depend upon the Internet, mostly because low socio-economic group students might not have Internet access at home. Teachers further indicated that e-mail use in class might not be appropriate for high school students because it is too impersonal. Also, they feared that this would increase their workload at home. Nevertheless, some teachers reported that they have successfully used e-mail with parents.