Testing the Job Demands-Resources model in a workplace health promotion context
Grigsby, Mari-Amanda Ashli
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There is a strong body of literature regarding workplace health promotion; however, two distinct priorities for research have been identified in the areas of 1) studying the impact of work on the physical and mental health of employees and 2) creating new conceptualizations about the nature of work (Wilson, 2008). Using these research priorities as a framework, this cross-sectional study examined the impact of job design and organizational characteristics, as defined by the Job Demands-Resources (JD-R) model, on employee well-being and productivity. Full-time, day shift employees from a municipal government setting were included in this study in order to analyze various job demands (workload, work-life balance, and emotional demands) and job resources (autonomy, social support, and leader-member exchange) and their effect on employee productivity (as defined by presenteeism and professional isolation), subjective well-being, and workplace health promotion program participation. Hypotheses were designed in accordance with relationships specified within the JD-R model and were examined to determine whether the chosen job demands and job resources were appropriate indicators. Although not all of the chosen job demands and job resources worked together regarding each outcome, the results revealed that some job demands and some job resources operated in the direction expected: job demands negatively affected employee productivity and workplace health promotion program participation, and job resources positively affected employee productivity, subjective well-being, and workplace health promotion program participation. These results 1) aligned with previous findings within the literature, 2) satisfied JD-R model assumptions, and 3) extended the JD-R literature to include outcomes related to workplace health promotion in an effort to better inform and guide future program design. Further, this study contributed to the literature by fulfilling research gaps for both the JD-R model and workplace health promotion by 1) studying the impact of work (as defined by broadly applicable combinations of job demands and job resources) on the physical and mental health of employees and 2) creating new conceptualizations about the nature of work through a JD-R model extension to workplace health promotion.