Household air pollution exposure from cookstove related woodsmoke and biomarkers of oxidative stress among women in San Marcos, Peru ; radioactivity in smoke particulates from prescribed burns at the Savannah River Site and at selected southeastern United
Commodore, Adwoa Dede
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Objectives: To: (1) compare airborne radionuclide concentrations at the Savannah River Site (SRS) and at select forests in the Southeastern United States during prescribed burns; (2) compare carbon monoxide (CO) exposures and concentrations from cookstove related woodsmoke among intervention and control stove users in San Marcos Province, Cajamarca region, Peru; (3) examine the relationship between household air pollution (HAP) exposure and urinary 8-OHdG and 8-isoprostane among subjects in San Marcos; (4) use PM2.5 and CO measurements to characterize HAP exposure in real time. Methods: Total suspended particulate samples were taken at SRS and at select Southeastern US forests. Spectroscopy was performed to determine radionuclide activity concentrations. Kruskal-Wallis tests and ordinary kriging were used to analyze the data. Time integrated and real-time PM2.5 and CO measurements were taken from subjects using control and intervention stoves in San Marcos, Cajamarca region, Peru. The first morning voids after 48hr exposure assessment were also taken from the subjects. General linear models and correlation analyses were used to estimate associations between the measurements. Results: Prescribed burns at SRS lead to measurable levels of 40K, gross beta, plutonium, thorium and uranium isotopes compared to offsite burns and nonburn days (p≤0.02) but these levels were ≤1% of the US Department of Energy’s air pathway standard. CO levels did not differ significantly between the two arms of the stove intervention in San Marcos (p>0.05). Real time PM2.5 and CO measurements were correlated, particularly during high exposure periods [lunch: r=0.67 p=0.024 n=11 and dinner: r=0.72 p=0.0011 n=17)]. Urinary 8-isoprostane levels reported in the literature are comparable to results reported in the current study. Median urinary 8-OHdG among subjects was 132.6ug/g creatinine while levels reported in the literature, also employing HPLC-ECD, range from 3-10ug/g creatinine. Conclusion: Radiation exposure from measureable levels of airborne radionuclides during SRS prescribed burns appears insignificant; however there are potential health impacts associated with exposures to forest biomass combustion products. Results of the San Marcos studies show levels of PM2.5 and CO mostly higher than WHO air quality guidelines. Results suggest that there is a sustained systemic oxidative stress status among these women.