Cultural and racial socialization in international transracial adoption
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The main purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships among racial awareness, cultural and racial socialization self-efficacy, and cultural and racial socialization practices among international transracial adoptive parents. The intention of this study was to develop the hypothesized model to explain the relationships among the five components. To do so, this study revised the Transracial Adoption Parenting Scale and created a new scale, the Socialization Self-Efficacy Scale, and provided the psychometric study of the two scales. Finally, the relationships among the five core components of cultural and racial socialization presented in the hypothesized model were examined in the study. Applying the quantitative method, a cross-sectional survey was conducted. Questionnaires were administered to international transracial adoptive parents, the members of parents’ support groups, via online listserv. A total of 486 responses were received and, due to missing values, 310 were used for data analysis in this study. Exploratory factor analyses were used for the psychometric studies of the two scales, and structural equation modeling was performed to test the hypothesized model. Structural equation modeling revealed direct, indirect, and mediating relationships among the five core components of cultural and racial socialization. The path value between cultural socialization self-efficacy and cultural socialization practices was statistically significant. The path values between racial awareness and racial socialization practices, and between racial socialization self-efficacy and racial socialization practices were statistically significant. Cultural socialization self-efficacy was found to be an important factor of cultural socialization practices. Both racial socialization self-efficacy and racial awareness were statistically significant factors of racial socialization practices. Furthermore, racial awareness was shown to be an important factor of cultural and racial socialization self-efficacy, both of which mediate the relationship between racial awareness and cultural and racial socialization practices. Thus, this study concluded that not only racial awareness but also cultural and racial socialization self-efficacy are important components of cultural and racial socialization in transracial adoption.
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