Peanut skin fortified peanut butters
Sanders, Cloviece Thomas
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Peanut skins (PS), high phenolic processing by-products, are potential functional ingredients. Peanut butters, which met the standard of identity, were reformulated by incorporating 0, 2.5 or 5.0% ground PS (dry-blanched, light or medium roasted). Objectives were: to assess PS incorporation effects on consumer acceptability (appearance, flavor, texture, overall, and ease of spreadability), texture, and appearance assessed with objective tests and phenolic content. A complete factorial design was used for nonsensory tests. Control and modified formulations differed in firmness, spreadability, gumminess, and presence of particulates, with all increasing as PS incorporation increased (p <0.05); heat treatment effects within PS level varied. Acceptability was assessed on a 9-point scale (n=140), with an incomplete block design augmented by a control. Consumers found 2.5% PS fortified peanut butters prepared with blanched or light roasted skins acceptable; phenolic content was increased 1.5-1.7 times. Potential market positioning as a natural, high antioxidant product should be investigated.