Endosomal maturation in macrophages activated by lacto-N-fucopentaose-III on molecules in schistosome soluble egg antigen
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Lacto-N-fucopentaose (LNFPIII) is a helminth glycan that drives CD4+ T-cells to the anti-inflammatory Th2 type and is thus of interest as a therapeutic compound for autoimmune diseases such as multiple sclerosis and obesity. LNFPIII is present on molecules in schistosome soluble egg antigen (SEA), and the aim of this study was to determine if SEA takes a comparable endocytic pathway to pure LNFPIII upon uptake by and activation of antigen-presenting cells (APCs). A confocal microscope anlaysis was done on SEA endocytosis. Fluorochromes were used against a series of endosomal markers in conjunction with staining of LNFPIII on molecules in SEA to analyze endosome maturation. Additionally, different endosomal inhibitors were used to confirm that SEA proceeds to the endosome. The study found that SEA is endocytosed by a clathrin-dependent pathway and proceeds to the early endosome and lysosome, a pathway that is comparable to LNFPIII endocytosis by APCs.