Avian influenza viruses in poultry
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Maintaining poultry free from Avian Influenza is essential to continued trade between countries. Although there are mechanisms to control influenza such as vaccination, it is important to understand the role of contaminated feces and litter in LPAI virus transmission. The infectivity of the viruses A/Ck/CA/431/00(H6N2), A/Mallard/MN/355779/00(H5N2), A/turkey/Ohio/313053/04(H3N2) in contact with poultry litter and manure were evaluated. The viruses retained infectivity in manure and litter for 24hrs, and infectivity was directly related to the rate of shedding, moisture content and environmental temperature. Control of influenza can be done by vaccination and monitoring with rapid serological methods for differentiating infected from vaccinated animals. The ability of the N1-ELISA and N2-ELISA to discriminate vaccinated from subsequently challenged turkeys was tested. The N1-ELISA and N2-ELISA detected 50% and 33 % respectively, of vaccinated and infected turkeys. Overall N1-ELISA and N2-ELISA were effective and rapid assays to identify exposure to the challenge virus during a DIVA vaccination strategy.