Preventing bone loss and weight gain with combinations of vitamin D and phytochemicals
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This study examined if dietary supplementation with a combination of phytochemicals with vitamin D inhibits bone loss and decreases adiposity in ovariectomized female rats. Ovariectomized female rats were given control, vitamin D or vitamin D + resveratrol + quercetin + genistein for 8 week. The high dose combination treatment significantly reduced body weight gain (control: 80±5 g; vitamin D: 81.5±5 g; high: 62.0±3, p<0.05) and fat pads as a percentage of body weight (control: 7.5±0.2; vitamin D: 7.6±0.2; high: 6.4±0.2, p<0.05) compared to the control and vitamin D alone. Results from the DEXA showed that bone mineral density (BMD) and content (BMC) of femora were significantly increased by the high dose combination, although they weren't different from vitamin D alone. However, BMD corrected for body weight was significantly greater in the high dose treated group compared to both the control and vitamin D groups (control: 4.7±0.05; vitamin D: 5.0±0.2; high: 5.6±0.2, p<0.05). Histomorphometric analysis of sections from the right tibia indicates that rats receiving the high dose combination have fewer marrow adipocytes (control: 22.86±1.8; vitamin D: 17.25±2; high: 12.53±0.8, p<0.001) and significantly reduced osteoclast number in trabecular bone compared to both the control and vitamin D groups (control: 4.89±0.5; vitamin D 5.51±0.7; high: 2.96±0.6 N.OC/B.Pm, p<0.05). We conclude that ovariectomized female rats supplemented with vitamin D and a combination of genistein, quercetin and resveratrol showed improved bone density and reduced body weight gain and marrow adipocytes compared to rats that received vitamin D alone. We predict that similar treatments in postmenopausal women would have similar effects.