Influence of land use on the concentrations of estrogens in water and sediment within a watershed
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The concentrations of 17β-estradiol, estrone, estriol, and 17α-ethinylestradiol in stream water, influent to and effluent from a sewage treatment plant (STP) receiving wastewater from a broiler processing plant, and sediment within the Upper Satilla watershed were determined for 14 months using LC-MS. The concentrations of 17β-estradiol, estrone, estriol ranged from below detection limits to 62.0 ng L-1, while 17α-ethinylestradiol was not detected in stream water samples but in the STP influent and effluent. High concentrations of estrogens were found in the suspended particles that were separated from the water samples. In sediment, the highest estrogen concentration was 5.0 ng g-1. The estrogen concentrations in STP influent were constantly high. We quantitatively analyzed the temporal and spatial distribution of the estrogens in relation to rainfall, land use, and water quality parameters. The results provide useful information on how agricultural runoff and STP effluent impact the occurrence of estrogens in natural water.