Driscoll, David Franklin
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Hortatory and goading rebukes in the Iliad are distinct in terms of their speech situations and their conventional scripts. Each speech genre attempts to change its target’s behavior, but by different means. Effective hortatory rebukes use praise and intimacy to suggest an alternative mode of behavior, while effective goading rebukes draw upon other speech genres and aim to intimidate. The Iliadic poet shapes his figures’ rebukes to help sustain their characterization throughout the poem. Hektor’s distinctive hortatory and goading rebukes particularly reflect his individual gentle nature. While the Trojan hero learns to harness this predilection to his advantage in his hortatory rebukes, his goading rebukes remain strikingly weakened by his attempts to bond with his opponents, especially the undefeatable Achilles.