Sourcing of spices to maximize total phenolic levels in food product development
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Spices are a significant poylphenolic source. Total phenolics in spice sample suites of cinnamon, cloves, and nutmeg were assayed. Phenolic values for the cinnamon sample suite (n=4) ranged from 44.0 ± 1.1 mg GAE/g to 136.8± 4.5 mg GAE/g; cloves (n=3) ranged from 142.1 ± 16.0 mg GAE/g to 166.7 ± 5.4 mg GAE/g; nutmeg (n=3) from 15.2 ± 0.9 mg GAE/g to 19.3 ± 0.8 mg GAE/g. Sensory panelists (n=134) evaluated pumpkin-spice muffins reformulated using specific spice combinations that minimized, and maximized total phenolics by combining those with the lowest and highest mg GAE/g in each sample suite; all supermarket spices served as the control. On a 5-point just-about-right scale, pumpkin flavor, sweetness and spice intensity were just-about-right and did not differ with formulation. All muffins were equally preferred (P=0.93); 42% of the panelists were willing to pay 20-40% more when an antioxidant claim was present.