Le voyage spirituel et la quête de l’absolu dans Oui mon commandant! d’Amadou Hampâté Bâ, L’aventure ambiguë de Cheikh Hamidou Kane, Les soleils des indépendances d’Ahmadou Kourouma
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This dissertation examines the conflict, in three major African novels, between the mystical dimensions of Islam embodied in the socio-political structure of the Diallobé (Fulbe Muslims of Northern Senegal) the Fulbe Muslims and Malinke (Muslims of Mali and Ivory Coast) and the more "rational" Western mentality. I begin, in chapter one, with Sufi concepts of self-realization as little has been said on the influence of Sufism (psycho-spiritual dimension of Islam) in these novels. In chapter two is devoted to Amadou Bâ’s Sufi journey of self-realization with his master, Tierno Bokar. I analyze, in Oui mon commandant!, both the outward and inward journey, the challenge he faces with regard to assimilation, his ego, the French colonial power in indigenous societies and the rivalry among Muslims brotherhoods. Chapter three focuses in L’Aventure Ambiguë on the impact of several subtle forms of domination of the Diallobé (Muslims of Northern Senegal) in West Africa, after the Army and the Church. One of the most important forms is the French school, which supplies the administrative machinery that perpetuates the power of the Colonial and Post-colonial administration. In chapter four, I discuss the impact of French colonialism and postcolonial on African structures, the creation of nation states ,the disillusion of the “suns of independences”, the single party state and Fama Doumbouya’s infertility on his quest for identity. In his quest of the Absolute, I will analyze his religious syncretism, the symbolism of his travels from the city to the village, his detachment from the world and le meaning of his final journey. In conclusion, I present that the quest of the Absolute in Bâ, Kane and Kourouma’s novels lie neither in the fanatical embracing of tradition, nor in the excessive embellishment of one’s original culture, nor in a form of cultural imperialism, but in spiritual process that will annihilate wayfarer’s ego and make him live in divine harmony with people.