Arsenic fractionation, plant uptake and its concentrations in runoff from poultry litter- amended pastures
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In regions of concentrated poultry production, poultry litter (PL) is commonly surface-applied to pastures at high levels over multiple years. The effect of long-term applications of PL on soil concentrations of arsenic (As), copper (Cu), Zinc (Zn), and the uptake of these elements by bermudagrass showed that concentrations these trace elements in soils were significantly greater than unamended (control) soil at 0-2.5 and 2.5-7.5 cm depths. However, the levels were well below the USEPA loading limits. Concentrations of all As fractions were significantly greater in PL-amended soils compared to control at both depths. Residual fraction was the predominant form of As in all soils. In a rainfall simulation (RS) study, total concentrations of As in runoff were above USEPA drinking water limit immediately or few days after PL application and it remained elevated 4 weeks after PL application. However, concentrations of Cu and Zn even immediately after PL application were below USEPA drinking water limit. Roxarsone was the major As species in the fresh PL and runoff from third RS study.