Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug effects in the canine kidney
Surdyk, Kathryn Kapala
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These studies were performed to determine the effects of cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibition with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents (NSAIDs) that were either COXnonselective (ibuprofen) or a preferential inhibitor of COX-2 (carprofen or etodolac) or a COX-2 selective agent (deracoxib) on renal function in euvolemic dogs and in dogs with extracellular fluid volume depletion. Plasma and urine biochemistries and urinary clearances of creatinine and para-aminohippuric acid were used to assess glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and renal plasma flow (RPF), respectively, in dogs with and without chronic administration of a 4 mg furosemide/kg body weight orally twice daily for 8 days. The effects of oral administration of ibuprofen (10 mg/kg once daily) and carprofen (2.2 mg/kg twice daily) and etodolac (12.5 mg/kg once daily) and deracoxib (3.5 mg/kg once daily) were compared utilizing a randomized crossover design. The results showed in dogs receiving furosemide, ibuprofen and carprofen had significant decreases in GFR but not RPF. The results of the first study revealed decreases in GFR when either NSAID was administered to dogs with volume-depletion induced by furosemide administration. The renal effects of the COX-nonselective and the preferential COX2 inhibitor were not significantly different. The results of the second study revealed that neither carprofen nor etodolac had a significant effect on RPF or GFR when administered alone. In dogs receiving furosemide, both carprofen and etodolac resulted in a significant, reversible decrease in GFR compared to placebo treatment. These results show when carprofen and etodolac were administered to dogs with volume-depletion it may be deleterious to renal function. The third study revealed a decrease in GFR when carprofen and etodolac and deracoxib were administered to dogs in combination with furosemide. The renal effects of the COX-nonselective, preferential COX-2 inhibitors and a coxib were similar. Using an NSAID of any type in dogs with extracellular fluid volume depletion may be deleterious to renal function.