Indigenous peoples and migrants
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In September 2008, a majority of Ecuadorians voted in favor of a new constitution that decisively places Ecuador among the left-leaning countries in Latin America. In Ecuador this tendency is personified by President Rafael Correa and his political party, Alianza PAIS. The content of Ecuador’s latest constitution is the product of a strong, innovative project that posits itself as a political, economic and social alternative to neoliberalism. The rise of indigenous organizing, and increased Ecuadorian emigration in the last 15-20 years are two social repercussions of neoliberalism. The incorporation of indigenous and emigrant rights is one way in which the 2008 Constitution reacts to neoliberalism. By including indigenous rights to autonomy and self-determination and emigrant rights, Ecuador’s 2008 Constitution defines the nation as plurinational and transnational and offers an inclusive, dynamic kind of nationalism. This nationalism is no longer defined by geographic borders and cultural homogeneity. I analyze the 2008 Constitution, government and media documentation of the drafting process, official speeches, the large body of historical and anthropological work on indigenous organizing in Ecuador, and documentation of second wave Ecuadorian migration to contextualize the nationalism offered by the 2008 Constitution. Knowledge of this broadened version of nationalism provides a better understanding of Ecuadorian politics and the country’s position in Latin America.