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The masked performances of Kukeri have survived from pre-Christian times and are still performed in multiple villages all over Bulgaria by men and women covered in goat skins and monstrous masks who, during the Winter months as well as around the Lenten season, chase the evil spirits away. The group of goat-skinned figures is followed by “funny men” dressed like women who stage satirical scenes commenting on current social issues such as presidential elections or price inflation. This dissertation analyzes the subject of Kukeri from the theoretical prism of performance studies and examines it as a performance incorporating theatrical elements such as improvisation, costumes and sets. In addition to analyzing the performance elements of Kukeri, I examine the practices as a site for constructing and performing nationality, ethnicity and patriotism. Kukeri includes the stock characters of the two major religious groups currently present on the territory of Bulgaria—Muslims and Christians. I argue that the performances, contrary to widely spread scholarly affirmations and popular beliefs, do not belong exclusively to the Bulgarian-Christian segments of the population. In addition, I investigate the performances as a site for constructing patriotism and nationality by also researching the process of “legitimatizing” Kukeri under Communism and reviewing the reconstructed Kukeri performances held at the official festivals away from their original village contexts and reframed according to the Party’s policy of staging and simulating the folk traditions of the people. I also focus exclusively on the satirical scenes staged by the “funny men” groups and study them as sites of popular culture, political protest and social satire. From a cultural studies point of view, the Kukeri “funny men” scenes present an astute critique of the contemporary Bulgarian political situation.