Science achievement of non-native English speakers
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This study was conducted using a nationally representative sample of Non-native English Speaking (NNES) students to estimate effects of certain student, family, and school variables on the science achievement of NNES Students. Hierarchical linear modeling was used to estimate effects of parental, school, and student variables on these NNES students’ science achievements. The estimate three level growth models included variables associated with student background characteristics (i.e., race, gender, and socioeconomic status); the school (i.e., school science instruction emphasis, number of certified ESL teachers); family (i.e., number of book at home, language spoken at home); and students (i.e., time spent on science homework, ESL enrollment). Responses to questions from a large, nationally representative dataset, the National Educational Longitudinal Study of 1988, were employed to test the model. It is found that from base year to the second follow-up, NNES students’ science achievement increased as students progressed in grade level. More home literature, more parental involvement and better home environment are good predictors of NNES students’ science achievement and achievement growth. Background and socioeconomic status (SES) affect NNES students’ achievement, but these variables only partially explain the level of science achievement attained. Proper parents’ guidance and school efforts would aid in closing the achievement gap.