Value added products from poultry litter using fractionation, pyrolysis, and pelletizing
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In raw form, poultry litter has certain draw backs for both energy production (high ash content and moisture content, a corrosive nature, and low energy content) and fertilizer (ow bulk density, and low nutrient content). We envisioned combining fractionation, pyrolsis, and pelletizing processes for value added utilization of poultry litter. The dissertation is divided into five major studies. The first “fractionation and decomposition kinetics” study explains the decomposition behavior of poultry litter under pyrolysis conditions. The second “screening and pyrolysis” confirms that the pyrolysis of the coarse fraction (screen#20) produced 44.47% char which retained only 43.53% of total feedstock energy. Overall, the pyrolysis products captured 57.23% of total feedstock energy and 53.86% of total feedstock carbon. The light phase of the condensate (4.94 ± 2.70% of the dry biomass) had a calorific value of 34.83 ± 0.91 MJ/kg and could be further refined as low grade fuel. The third “screening and pyrolysis parameter” study concludes that the highest calorific value of the char coal (17.39 ± 1.37MJ/kg) was made from coarse fraction at 300°C and heating rate of 30°C/min, which captured 68.71 ± 9.37% of the feedstock energy. Most of the nitrogen was retained by char followed by the medium phase of the condensate The third study concludes that the highest calorific value of the char coal (17.39 ± 1.37MJ/kg) was made from coarse fraction at 300°C, which captured 68.71 ± 9.37% of the feedstock energy. Most of the nitrogen was retained by char followed by medium phase of the condensate. The fourth “compression behavior” study concludes that the fine fraction of the poultry litter was densified from a bulk density of 466.65 ± 14.25 kg/m3 up to 1537.37 kg/m3 at 4000 N compressive load or 124.965 ± 0.844 MPa pressure. Neither the aqueous nor bio-oil phase possessed binding properties but did possess lubrication properties. The fifth “Co-firing poultry litter char with coal” shows that the calorific value significantly increased and ash content decreased with increase in amount of standard coal in the mixtures. A mixture of 60% char and 40% standard coal harvested 78% of the coal energy, reduced ash content by 62%, and ammonia content by 41% compared to poultry litter char itself. The results of this dissertation will benefit the poultry industry by reducing storage and transportation cost and generating income from poultry litter through value added products.