Total folate in peanuts and peanut products
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Samples consisting of 222 cultivar specific samples of four different peanut types (Runner,Virginia, Spanish and Valencia) from 2 years (2005 and 2006) from 3 geographical locations(Southeast, Southwest and Virginia/Carolina) were collected for the study. No significantdifferences were noted among the folate levels by types for 2005 crop year peanuts (P>0.05).For 2006 peanuts, Spanish peanuts were statistically lower in folate than Runner and Virginiapeanuts (P<0.05). For the Runner cultivars, significant (P<0.05) differences existed amongcultivars with some significant year-to-year variation. Year of harvest did not have significanteffect on folate content of Virginia peanuts. Folate contents among Virginia cultivars werestatistically similar in 2005 and 2006. For Spanish cultivars in 2005, OLin had significantlyhigher folate than Tamspan 90. Overall means for both Runner and Spanish peanut typesshowed that high-oleic cultivars contained significantly higher total folate levels than normalcultivars (P<0.05). Folate levels in peanuts from Virginia/Carolina region varied significantly byproduction year, but peanuts from Southeast and Southwest region did not vary from 2005 to2006. Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to optimize the trienzyme digestion forthe extraction of total folate from peanut butter. The predicted second-order polynomial model was adequate (R2 = 0.97) with a small coefficient of variation (3.05). Both PronaseR andconjugase had significant effects on the extraction. Ridge analysis gave an optimum trienzymetime: PronaseR, 1h; ?-amylase, 1.5 h; conjugase, 1h. The experimental value of peanut butter(SRM 2387) was close to the predicted value from the model, confirming the validity andadequacy of the model. The optimized trienzyme digestion time when applied to peanut butterand Runner, Virginia and Spanish peanuts gave comparable values to AOAC Method 2004.05. Mean folate levels of commercial products ranged from 66 g/100g in dry roastedpeanuts to 125 g/100g in partially defatted peanut flour (28% fat). When comparing folate levelsin peanuts with the levels in several tree nuts, walnuts had similar folate levels to peanuts. Folatelevels in raw peanuts and roasted and blanched used to manufacture peanut butter werestatistically similar (P>0.05) to the folate levels in the finished product. Retention (%) was 97.5at the roasted and blanched stage and 95 after the milling stage.
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