The impact of fathers' involvement and parenting styles on their children's social competence
Kim, Keun Kyu
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Korean fathers’ involvement and parenting styles are examined as predictors of their young children’s social competence, using the Inventory of Father Involvement (IFI), the Parenting Styles and Dimensions Questionnaire (PSDQ), and the Child Behavior Scale (CBS). A total of 196 Korean fathers and mothers from Athens and Atlanta, GA; Tallahassee and Gainesville, FL; and Austin and College Station, TX, participated and completed a demographic form, the IFI, and the PSDQ. Also, the teachers (34) of the participants’ children (213) rated the children’s social competence using the CBS. The fathers’ involvement and parenting styles were assessed by the fathers themselves and by their wives. This study investigated an overarching research question: What relationships can be found between Korean fathers’ involvement and parenting styles and their children’s social competence? Correlation, multiple regression, K-mean cluster analysis, and ANOVAs were conducted to examine the following: (a) relations between fathers’ involvement and children’s social competence, (b) relations between fathers’ parenting styles and children’s social competence, (c) relations between fathers’ involvement and their parenting styles, and (d) associations between fathers’ personal characteristics and their involvement and parenting styles. The results provided strong evidence for the relationships between fathers’ involvement and their children’s social competence and for the positive impact of fathers’ authoritative parenting styles on children’s social competence. Korean fathers and mothers reported that an authoritative parenting style was a dominant style of the Korean fathers in the study. Also, fathers’ high level of involvement was significantly related to fathers’ authoritative parenting style. The results of K-mean cluster analysis revealed that the children of Group 1 fathers (strong authoritative, moderate authoritarian, and moderate permissive parenting) and Group 3 fathers (strong authoritative, strong authoritarian, and moderate permissive) obtained high CBS scores. Furthermore, the children of fathers with a high socioeconomic status showed relatively high CBS scores whereas fathers’ religion was not significantly associated with children’s CBS scores. Finally, social learning theory can explain and support many of the findings of this study.