Contact-induced changes from English (L2) to Mandarin Chinese (L1)
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Language contact typically occurs when speakers of different languages interact. Other contact situations such as distant contact may also occur with the help of other media. This study introduces two borrowings induced by contact between speakers of English (L2) and Mandarin (L1). Through contact, Chinese speakers borrow from the English lexicon; such lexical items become “Chinese-ified” phonologically and then integrated into the A-not-A question as in Ni3 [hæ] bu4 happy? ‘Are you happy?’ Adverbs and time phrases in Chinese are placed pre-verbally, whereas in English they are generated post-verbally. Data have indicated structural interference in the distribution of both as in Wo2 zou3 xian1 ‘I am going to go first’. The empirical data gathered in this study show contact-induced borrowings at both lexical and structural level and how such borrowing is the combined outcome of social factors such as need and prestige and accessibility and acceptability.