Linking general parenting and racial socialization to rural African American youths' adjustment
Sims, Nelrose Chandler
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Data from 668 rural African American families, with an 11-year-old adolescent, were examined to test pathways through which individual racial socialization components influence youth adjustment through the enhancement of self-pride, self-control, and goal-directed future orientation, and through the prevention of externalizing and internalizing. Youth gender and general parenting behaviors, including nurturant-involvement, harsh-inconsistent discipline, and parent-child affective relationship quality, were examined as moderators of these pathways. Results supported adequate model fit of two hypothesized pathways, (CFI = .9996, RMSEA = .024 (.00, .055); CFI = 1.00, RMSEA = .00 (.00, .064)), and supported the hypotheses that nurturing and involved parents are most likely to engage in racial socialization and that individual racial components have unique effects on youth. Specifically, while preparation for bias promotes positive development, promotion of mistrust contributes to decreased self-control and increased externalizing in African American youth, even when associated with effective parenting.