Equity in state civil service systems
Llorens, Jared James
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Civil service employees in the United States, at all levels of government, are a critical component in the success of the nation’s system of governance. This dissertation examines the status of state government civil service systems with regards to three indicators of civil service equity: female and minority representation, wage discrimination within the civil service, and wage equity with the private sector. Given the changing nature of civil service systems, a supplemental analysis of the impact of two common reforms of the past twenty years, personnel decentralization and private sector contracting, is also provided. In the area of bureaucratic representation, results indicate that women are moderately overrepresented in state civil service employment, and that representation rates for African-Americans vary, with underrerpesentation in some states, nearly proportional representation in others, and substantial overrepresentation in other states. Results for Latinos show that, on average, they are underrepresented in the state civil service systems. Of note is the finding that private sector discrimination, relative to public sector discrimination, positively impacts bureaucratic representation rates for both women and Latinos, but not for African-Americans. Results of analysis of civil service wage discrimination find that women, on average, experience wage penalties of 9 percent when compared to men of similar human capital characteristics, and African American and Latinos experience lower rates of wage discrimination, 8 and 3 percent respectively. With regard to public/private wage gaps, results indicate that state civil servants experience an overall wage premium of 2 percent when compared to similar employees in the private sector. However, when separated by gender, this premium is erased for men such that they experience a 2 percent wage penalty. On the other hand, female state civil servants experience a wage premium of 4 percent. Results of supplemental analysis of personnel reform find no evidence that personnel decentralization and private sector contracting function as determinants of bureaucratic representation, civil service wage discrimination, or public/private wage equity.