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This study examines a debate on Italian Fascist education in 1935 between two prominent Fascist intellectuals, Giovanni Gentile and Giuseppe Bottai. It highlights an important historical moment for Fascism, one in which a new emphasis on aggressive foreign policy encouraged cultural conformity at home. The debate emerged during an interesting time for education policy as well. The centralizing policies of the Minister of National Education Cesare Maria De Vecchi produced criticism from many commentators, particularly from Gentile. The interplay between these characters has implications for our understanding not only of the scope for criticism within the regime but also of the importance of divergent interpretations of Fascism in the inner workings of the regime.