Serum 25(OH)D concentrations in girls aged 4-8 years in the southeast United States
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Increasing evidence suggests that adults and adolescents throughout the United States are atrisk for poor vitamin D status, but vitamin D levels of young children in the United Stateshave not been assessed. Serum 25(OH)D was assessed in prepubertal females, aged four toeight years (n=168) living in southeast United States and relationships were examined withbone and body composition. Serum 25(OH)D was assessed using radioimmunoassay(DiaSorin Laboratories), and bone area (BA), bone mineral content (BMC), and areal bonemineral density (aBMD) was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (HologicQDR-1000W). Data were analyzed using ANOVA, ANCOVA, stepwise multiple regression,and partial correlations. Mean serum 25(OH)D was 93.8 nmol/l (SD 28.1, range 31.1-181.4 ).The multiple regression model identified race and season as the strongest predictors ofvitamin D status. Black girls had significantly lower mean 25(OH)D values than white girls(p <0.01), and mean values were significantly different between seasons in the total sample(F=11.87, p<0.001), ranging from 74.4 nmol/l in participants tested in the winter months to107 nmol/l in those tested in the summer. Furthermore, after adjusting for season, age, race,and BMI, 25(OH)D values had no significant associations with bone variables, except for anegative partial correlation with forearm BMC (r=-0.182; p=0.021). In black girls only, age,calcium intake, and household income were significantly associated with 25(OH)D (r=-0.41,0.36, 0.31, respectively) . Unlike some prior reports of adults and adolescents living in thesoutheast United States, vitamin D status was adequate among the prepubertal girls in thisstudy. Moreover, 25(OH)D levels were not positively associated with higher bone mineral inthese children. This project was funded by National Institute on Child Health and HumanDevelopment grant 1 RO1 HD 35592-01A1.