The contribution of expressive versus instrumental activity restriction to the well-being of caregivers
Loucks-Atkinson, Angela Suzanne
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This longitudinal study examined the contribution of expressive versus instrumental activity restriction (AR) to indicators of well-being among caregivers. Competing factor structures of the Activity Restriction Scale (ARS; Williamson & Schulz, 1992) were tested, compared, and cross-validated to explore whether the items of the ARS formed the two distinct categories of expressive and instrumental activities. A series of studies explored: (1) the cross-sectional associations between AR and well-being; (2) the ability of AR to predict change in well-being; (3) the bidirectional and reciprocal relations between AR and well-being over time; and (4) the relation between change in AR and change in well-being over time. At Time 1, AR was associated with increased depression, anxiety, and physical symptomatology, and decreased social support and perceived health status. Neither expressive nor instrumental AR contributed to indicators of well-being over time. Rather, the findings suggested that these indicators of well-being may be stronger predictors of AR.