Repetition effect of positive and negative political advertising with the presence or absence of disclaimer
MetadataShow full item record
This study examines the effectiveness of political advertising in terms of recall, attitude toward ads, and voting intention with three dimensions: level of frequency, type of political advertising (positive or negative) and the presence or absence of the disclaimer. The results of this study indicate the type of political advertising and the presence or absence of the disclaimer can be a direct predictor to explain recall of ads, attitude toward ads, and voting intention, instead of level of frequency. Therefore, the principle of effective frequency of commercial ads, supported by a three-plus “rule of thumb” status and the inverted U- or S-shaped form with the concept of generation and satiation, is not applicable to political advertising. Moreover, this study suggests that negative political advertising works better for the sponsoring candidate, but it tends to wearout more easily than positive advertising does. With respect to the disclaimer, a new issue in this field, this study suggests that on one hand, voters in competitive elections, saturated by advertisements, may find the disclaimer annoying and not view the provision positively - positive advertising. On the other hand, an ad viewed with increased frequency may reinforce the positive impact on attitude toward ads, trust, and confidence observed in this study – negative advertising.