Biology and management of twolined spittlebug, Prosapia bicincta (Say) (Hempitera: Cercopidae) in turfgrass
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Potential predation on twolined spittlebug, Prosapia bicincta (Say) eggs, nymphs and adults was investigated in the laboratory by entomophagous arthropods commonly found in turfgrass. Eggs were most vulnerable to attack from predators. Nymphs are protected in the spittlemass from predation, but are susceptible to attack when, mechanically removed from their spittlemass. P. bicincta adults were also killed by arthropod predators evaluated in the study. The functional response of the tiger beetle, Megacephala carolina carolina L. to varying prey densities of P. bicincta, and fourth instar fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) larvae in single- prey and two-prey systems was assessed in the laboratory. Like most insect predators, M. carolina carolina demonstrated a type II functional response in both situations. An alternate management strategy for P. bicincta, with low-risk selective insecticides against nymphs and adults was evaluated in the field. Number of general use insecticides were effective in controlling P. bicincta nymphs and adults.