Self-report concussion related symptoms
Piland, Scott Gene
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The purpose of this project was two-fold. The first purpose was to confirm the factorial and construct validity of responses to the Head Injury Scale (HIS) and a measure of symptom severity based upon the Post Concussion Symptom Scale (PCSS) and Graded Symptom Checklist (GSC). The second purpose was to examine the relationships between baseline responses to the self-report measures and variables that may serve to influence composite self-report scores. A priori models were tested using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). Using an experimental design, scores were compared on each scale between concussed and non-concussed groups. Participants (N = 1065, male n = 805) were college athletes (age of 19.81 ± 1.53 years) from 7 NCAA institutions. Experimental analyses (N = 27, concussed n=17). Two day test-retest reliability was conducted with a sample of healthy college student (n=83). Participants completed baseline measures for two scales and health questionnaire. Experimental analysis was performed on Baseline and Days 1, 2, 3, and 10 post-injury. Evidence for the reliability, factorial, and construct validity was provided for the 9-item HIS and the 9-item severity scale. Significant interaction on responses to the 9- item HIS and 9-item severity scale were found. Statistical differences between groups were observed on days 1 and 2 post-concussion. Previous concussion history and controllable conditions served to increase baseline responses to each measure. Daily fatigue, physical illness, and orthopedic injury can serve to increase self-report symptom scores. These variables need to be controlled prior to collecting non-concussed baseline measures on self-report symptoms.