The effect of water and gluten on the water mobility, gelatinization and retrogradation of bread and starch gels
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The effects of water and gluten on the water mobility in bread and retrogradation of starch gels were studied using pulsed 1 H NMR. Breads were made with three levels of water content and three levels of gluten content. Model system was used on starch-gluten gels. Distributed exponential analysis of the transverse relaxation curves showed no significant difference with different gluten content, indicating decrease of the mobility of water associated with starch due to gelatinization, so that gluten addition did not affect the total water mobility of the bread. Starch-gluten gels with different gluten content were measured to study the effect of gluten on starch retrogradation. The T2 values of all the starch-gluten samples decreased much less than the starch gels, but there was no significant difference among gels with different gluten contents. This suggested that gluten retarded starch retrogradation, but further addition of gluten did not further decrease retrogradation rate.