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dc.contributor.authorZenere, Antonio
dc.date.accessioned2014-03-03T20:28:09Z
dc.date.available2014-03-03T20:28:09Z
dc.date.issued2003-05
dc.identifier.otherzenere_antonio_200305_phd
dc.identifier.urihttp://purl.galileo.usg.edu/uga_etd/zenere_antonio_200305_phd
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10724/20964
dc.description.abstractRaw peanuts contain 45% oil, and mechanical extraction leaves 12-14% fat in the press cake. Peanut press cake is rich in protein and relatively low in fat; however, almost all of it is currently used as animal feed or fertilizer since the peanuts used in the oil extraction process are not edible grade. The goal of this research was to develop a chip-type snack food based on partially defatted flour processed from edible grade peanuts. In a preliminary experiment, chips were produced from a mixture of peanut flour and either soy or corn flour. A consumer test showed that the panelists did not consider the chips completely acceptable. However, peanut-corn chips had a higher rating than peanut-soy chips for overall liking (4.9 versus 4.4, on a 9-point hedonic scale) and acceptability (46.7% considered the peanut-corn acceptable, compared with 40.7% for peanut-soy chips). A second generation of peanut chips was produced by mixing 3 parts of peanut flour with 1 part of soy flour or wheat flour, cornstarch, peanut butter and sugar. A trained panel characterized the sensory attributes of the peanut chips in an analytical sensory test. Only a few significant differences in sensory quality were found between the peanut-soy chips and the peanut-wheat chips. However, the hardness appeared to be the biggest concern about the new product, with shear stress values close to 1000 N/g. In a third experiment a new series of peanut chips was produced, containing peanut flour and soy in the ratio of 3:1, in addition to variable amounts of sugar, starch and peanut butter. A factorial design was used, with sugar, starch and peanut butter at three different levels. Twenty-seven formulations were produced in replicate. Kramer shear force, instrumental color and consumer acceptability were analyzed. The Kramer shear value was 441 N/g chip in formulations with high percentages of sugar, starch and peanut butter. Response surface methodology (RSM) was applied to investigate the optimum levels of each ingredient in the chips. Contour plots were built for each physical and sensory characteristic. They showed that chips made with the highest level of sugar, starch and peanut butter were about half as hard as chips made with the lowest level of each ingredient.
dc.languageeng
dc.publisheruga
dc.rightspublic
dc.subjectPeanut flour
dc.subjectSoy flour
dc.subjectDough sheeting
dc.subjectImpingement oven
dc.subjectKramer shear
dc.subjectOptimization
dc.subjectAcceptability
dc.subjectConsumer testing
dc.subjectSnack chips.
dc.titlePhysicochemical and sensory properties of a chip-type snack food based on defatted peanut and soy flour
dc.typeDissertation
dc.description.degreePhD
dc.description.departmentFood Science and Technology
dc.description.majorFood Science
dc.description.advisorYao-wen Huang
dc.description.committeeYao-wen Huang
dc.description.committeePhilip E. Koehler
dc.description.committeeRonald R. Eitenmiller
dc.description.committeeManjeet S. Chinnan
dc.description.committeeRobert D. Phillips Kay H. McWatters


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