Ecology and management of peach scab (Cladosporium carpophilum) and plum curculio (Conotrachelus nenuphar) in the southeastern United States
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Cladosporium carpophilum (the scab fungus) and Conotrachelus nenuphar (the plum curculio) are two important pests of stone fruits in the Southeast. This study developed new knowledge about the biology of the two organisms and explored alternative tactics for their management. In field experiments in research and commercial orchards, joint alternate-row middle application of fungicide and insecticide during midseason was found equivalent to conventional spraying in controlling both pests while resulting in lower non-target effects and reduced application time. Laboratory rearing experiments with the plum curculio led to the development of a degree-day model showing that larval and pupal development was completed after 215.5 and 442.4 degree-days at base temperatures of 11.1oC and 8.7oC, respectively. In the orchard, conidia of the scab fungus were shown to be disseminated primarily by rain splash and secondarily by twig runoff, while dew and airborne conidia were relatively unimportant for disease development.