Biological, behavioral, and toxicological studies on the black soldier fly (Diptera: stratiomyidae)
Tomberlin, Jeffrey Keith
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Black soldier flies (BSF), Hermetia illucens (L.), were reared on three media to determine effects of diet on pre-imaginal development and selected adult life-history traits. Characteristics examined for individuals reared on each diet were compared to field-collected prepupae and corresponding adults. Diet-reared specimens had reduced emergence, size, longevity, and calorie content in comparison to wild specimens. | Time from emergence to mating and oviposition for colony-reared BSF placed in a cage in a greenhouse was examined. Sixty-nine percent of mating occurred 2 d after eclosion and 70% of oviposition 2 d after mating. Mating was significantly correlated with time of day and light intensity, while oviposition significantly correlated with time of day, temperature, and humidity. | Oviposition site selection was examined for BSF in a greenhouse. Adults oviposited in two treatments: Gainesville house fly (HF), Musca domestica larval diet (1) with and (2) without BSF larvae. Number of egg clutches collected per treatment did not differ. | Cyromazine and pyriproxifen LC50s for BSF larvae failing to become adults ranged from 0.13 - 0.19 ppm and 0.10 to 0.12 ppm respectively. Slopes of dosagemortality regression for BSF larvae fed larval media treated with cyromazine or pyriproxifen ranged from 3.94 - 7.69 and 1.67 - 2.32 respectively. Pyriproxifen dosagemortality regressions were not generated for percent larvae failing to become prepupae since < 32% mortality occurred at any rate. Pyriproxifen rates from 0.03 to 232 ppm resulted in 12 - 29% greater prepupal weights than the control. | Dosage-mortality regressions were determined for BSF, Cornell-susceptible HF and wild HF exposed to two pyrethroids: ?-cyhalothrin, and permethrin. The BSF population is much more sensitive to these pyrethroids in comparison to the Cornellcolony and wild HF population. | Olfactory and tactile inhibition of HF oviposition in media inoculated with BSF larvae was investigated. Results from the oviposition bioassays suggest that olfactory cues inhibit HF oviposition in media inoculated with BSF larvae. However, results from the olfactometer experiments were inconclusive and additional research is needed to more clearly understand these interactions.